Like more than 100,000 other Americans of Japanese ancestry, Fred Toyosaburo Korematsu was ordered to be sent to an American prison camp after the bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941. But Fred resisted and then challenged the forced internment in court. Although he lost, his case and his life are a great example of commitment to civil rights and the consequences faced by individuals who insist on standing up for justice. "Of Civil Wrongs and Rights" tells the story of Red Korematsu's case and his 40-year fight for legal vindication.
During World War II, Gordon Hirabayashi chose to fight the internment of thousands of Japanese Americans. He spent more than two years in prisons for violating exclusion and curfew orders. He cleared his name four decades after his 1942 arrest and, in the process, helped prove the US falsified the reasons for the mass incarceration.
The American Friends Service Committee mourns the passing of Gordon Hirabayashi, a civil rights icon, Friend, and former AFSC staff member, on January 2, 2012.
His deep convictions made him challenge the authority of a military decree to intern Japanese Americans on the West Coast during World War II - thus raising the most profound issues that can be raised concerning American citizenship.
AFSC is a Quaker organization devoted to service, development, and peace programs throughout the world. Our work is based on the belief in the worth of every person, and faith in the power of love to overcome violence and injustice. Learn more
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AFSC has office around the world. To see a complete list see the Where We Work page.